History is as important as any other branch of science. Careful review of events in the past will pave the way for new invention. Since 1005, the year when the Leipzing Institute was founded by Carl Sudoff nearly every university has introduced the subject of medical history in it’s undergraduate or postgraduate courses.
The exact , correct and true history of Ayurveda since the creation is not known due to destruction of ancient Ayurvedic literature in political and religious wars by carrying the worthful books of Ayurveda to foreign countries, absence of authors biodata in their texts , for not having quality paper production and storage facilities of literature etc .
Ayurveda is the science of life. It is the first and oldest medical and health science. The science of ayurveda is divine gift to mankind. It exists on earth since time immemorial. According to our Ayurvedic texts Bramha , the creator of universe first explained the ayurveda to Daksha Prajapati in thousand chapters consisting one lakhs of shloka. From Bramha Ayurveda descended.
Hierarchial descend of Ayurveda :-
The word ayurveda composed of the words Ayu and Veda.
आयुर्वेदः = आयुः+वेदः
आयु = आ उपसर्ग + युज् /युजिर् धातु
वेदः = विद् धातु + तिङ् प्रत्यय
आयुषः वेदः आयुर्वेदः । (च. सू. 30/23)
Itihas shabd is formed by combination of Iti, Ha and Aas.
इतिहास = इति + ह + आस
इति = Thus
ह = positively
आस = Existed or Happened
इतिहास pada is derived from the root word ‘अस् धातु ‘ in लिट् लकार and एक वचन .
‘इतिहासः पुनरावृत्तम्‘ i.e. positively happened real incidents of past.
Definition of Ayurveda :-
हिताहितं सुखं दुखमायुस्तस्य हिताहितम् ।
मानं च तच्च यत्रोक्तं आयुर्वेदः स उच्यते ।। (च.सू. 1/41)
The science dealing with beneficial/good , harmful/bad, pleasureable/happy and unpleasurable/unhappy aspects of ayu , it’s promoters and non-promoters ; measurement and also it’s nature or soul is ayurveda.
शरीरेन्द्रियसत्त्वात्मसंयोगो धारि जीवितं ।
नित्यगश्चानुबन्धश्च पर्यायेेरायुरुच्यते ।। (च.सू.1/42)
The Ayu is conjunction of sharir (body), indriya , satwa (manas) and atman. Its four synonyms are dhari , jivita , nityaga and anubandha.
- Dhari – धारयति शरीरं पूतितां गन्तुं न ददाति इति धारि। i.e. Which sustains the body by preventing the damage.
- Jivita – जीवयति प्राणान धारयति इति जीवितं। i.e. Which continue the biological function and continue the prana.
- Nityaga– नित्यं शरीरस्य क्षणिकत्वेन गच्छति इति नित्यग। i.e.Which continue movement.
- Anubandha – अनुबन्धनाति आयुः अपरापरशरीरादि संयोगरूपतया इति अनुबन्धः। i.e.which tie up the contents sharira , indriya , satva and atma in respective manner and inter connection to each other.
- Hitayu – Ayu with dharma, satya jnana , good conduct and helping nature.
- Ahitayu – Selfish congested mentality and line for only personal development.
- Sukhayu – Good health with sharira manas and swastha.
- Dukhayu – Ill health , sharira and manas vishamta.
Vedas are earliest literature of the world. It is written in the form of वेैदिक मन्त्र।
Division of वेैदिक मन्त्र :-
- Brahmanas= Deals with sacrificial ceremonies.
- Aranyaka= Concluding portion. Meant for vanprasthashram.
- Upnishad= Deals with spiritual knowledge. These are 108 in number.
The word Veda is derived from विद् धातु .
वेदः = विद् धातु + तिङ् प्रत्यय
It means authentic real knowledge , elaborate description.
There are four types of vedas. They are-
Ayurveda is upveda of अथर्वेद .
These are 6 limbs of vedas :-
- शिक्षा – Orthography
- व्याकरण – Grammar
- छंद – Prosody
- निरुक्त – Etymological derivation
- कल्प – Rules of rituals
- ज्योतिष – Astrology
Aim of Ayurveda :-
I) Preventive aspect – स्वस्थस्य स्वास्थ्यरक्षणम्।
To preserve the health of healthy person.
II)Curative aspect – आतुरस्य विकारप्रश्मनञ्च।
To cure the disease.
समदोषः समाग्निश्च समधातुमलक्रियः।
प्रसन्नात्मेन्द्रियमनाः स्वस्थ इत्यभिधीयते।। (सु. सू. -15/47 )
The normal status of Dosha , Dhatu , Mala , Agni , Manas and Atma is known as swasthya or health. Health is important for achieving dharma artha kama and moksha.
धर्मार्थकाममोक्षानामारोग्यं मूलमुत्तमम्। (च.सू.-1/15 )
अष्टांग आयुर्वेद or Eight Branches of Ayurveda :-
काय बाल ग्रहोरध्वांग शल्य दंष्ट्रा जरा वृषान।
अष्टाङ्गानि तस्याहुश्चिकित्सा येषु संश्रिता।।
- Kayachikitsa – General medicine
- Bala chikitsa – Paediatrics
- Graha Chikitsa – Demenology or Science of supernatural power
- Urdhwanga chikitsa or Shalakya Tantra – ENT and Opthamology
- Shalya chikitsa – Surgery
- Danshtra or Agada Tantra – Toxicology
- Jara or Rasayana Tantra – Rejuvenation Therapy
- Vrishan or Vajikaran – Aphrodisiacs
Ayurvedic Texts :-
- Akara grantha are self authentic but Prakarana grantha are written by quoting the references from other texts.
Different Ayurvedic Periods :- (काल विभाग )
- Prehistoric Period – ( 2 MYA- 6000 yr BC )
- Paleolithic Age(old)
- Mesolithic Age (Middle)
- Neolithic Age (New)
2. Pre-Vedic Period – (6000 – 5000 yr BC)
3. Vedic Period – ( 5000 – 2700 yr BC)
4. Post -Vedic Period
- Samhita Kala ( 2700 yr BC – 600 yr AD )
- Sangraha Kala ( 600 yr AD – 1600 yr AD )
- Adhunika Kala ( 1600 yr – till date )