The word Sharira means Ashraya. It gives Ashraya to Prana and Atma.
As per Rachana sharira- It means is to ‘deteriorate’ or change from time to time.
The depreciation process of the body starts from zygote up to the end of life. Every time there is revolution in the body.
According to Acharya charaka:
The Adhisthan of Chetana [ Atma ] along with the PanchMahabhoot and Vikara is known as Sharira or the body is defined as the seat or abode of consciousness made up with aggregation of product of 5 mahabhoot and is carried on in the state of equilibrium. The consciousness related to Atma is manifested in the body.
The rasa etc. (Dhatu) , the product of mahabhuta’s are beginner or creator of the body and the body is aggregate of mahabhut this aggregation includes the soul ( Lingapurusa ). The cause of this aggregation is Atma and body that’s why the body is said to be aggregate of product of panchmahabhoot with its cause or soul.
The Sharira is Samyogvahi. The tridosha, saptadhatu and trimala are in the normal status such normal status of those dhatu and mala is called as Sharira. The product (vikara) of combination ( samudayatmak ) of Chetana and Panchmahabhut is Sharira.
Samyogvahi refers to the aggregation of dhatu’s in their normalcy or equilibrium state , carries the body normally in disease free state , when this aggregation is in inequal ( i.e. Less or more ) or in disequilibrium.
As per Acharya Sushruta :-
The combination of Shukra and Sonita along with the Atma, Panchmahabhuta and Vikara in the uterus is known as Garbha .Vayubhut divide this mass possessing Chetana that is consciousness ( property of life ), Tejasmahabhut helps in pachana ( metabolic activities ), Apa helps in Kledana ( moistens it, rasa dhatu in the form of nourishment to the tissue ), Prithvi helps in samhana / hardness ( compactness of cell and tissue ), Akashbhut helps in vivardhana ( expansion and development of the body ) .
Developed in this manner, when it becomes endowed with hands, feet, nose, ears, buttocks etc. then it derives name Sharira.
Sukranu (spermatozoa) is the male seed and is present in the semen and andanu (ovum) is the female seed and is produced by the ovary. Both these reach the interior of the uterus at specified time and unite there. These two seeds are composed of panchmahabhuta , at the same time when male and female seed unites Atma also enter into this union and makes the mass active or conscious exhibiting the properties of life. The term Prakriti stands for Avyakta, Mahat, Ahankar and Panchatanmatra – these are 8 evolving matters.
Vikara – Sixteen evolutes/Products
EkadashaIndriya (11 Indriya)
Atma is counted as 25th principle. Hence the embryo is the combination of all these and possess properties of life such as response to stimuli, respiration, digestion of food, growth, mental activities etc. It steadily grows in the course of nine month and endowed with many parts that is Sharira.
As per Acharya Kashyapa:-
The Shukra and Artava merges in the garbhasaya with Jivatma, Prakriti and Vikara to form the Garbha, further gradually Garbha expands and develops to form angapratayanga and after the development of the anga – pratayanga it is considered as Sharira. The vishista combination of panchmahabhuta andatma is also knownasSharira.By the vishistacombination of panchmahabhutathere is formation of dosha, dhatu and mala. These dosha, dhau, mala are the basic component and moola for the formation of Sharira.These dosa, dhatu, mala are the three basic pillars of the body.
According to Modern Concept:–
The sperm and ovum unites in the ampulla of the uterine tube and forms the zygote. Then zygote develops up to the second month and known as embryo, further from third month embryo develops up to the nine month, then distinguished as foetus then after the delivery it is recognised as child or baby.
Importance of Sharira: –
The knowledge of the Sharira is very essential and important in the field of science of life, without the basic knowledge of the Sharira, the physician cannot become successful in the field of treatment and also to maintaining the healthy life.
The physician should have the proper knowledge of the basic science for clinical diagnosis, to treat the disease and to maintain the healthy life. Who knows the better knowledge of Sharira they will become good success in diagnosis, treating the disease and as well as to maintain the healthy life such a well known physician is appreciated by society. The physician who want to become perfect in the field of science of life they must be perfect in the science of human body that is Sharira. The normal anatomy study is very necessary.
The human body is mainly divided into 6 regions (six angas) for the description purpose. These divisions helps to understand the each prataynga and perfectly. This systemic Anatomical study is known as pradeshika Sharia (regional anatomy).
As per Acharya Charaka
तद्था – द्वौबाहू, द्वेसक्थिनी, शिरोग्रीवम्, अन्तराधिः, इतिषडडःग्मडःग्म।।(च.शा.७/५)
Here is the division of body parts –
Two upper limb (2)
Two lower limb (2)
Head and neck (1)
Head and Neck are considered as one body part, Antaradhi is middle part of the body.
Charak also defines pratayngas (sub parts of the body) There are 56 sub parts attached to six major body parts. Acharya charaka also defined Kosthanga (he defined 15 kosthana )
These are –
6) Both kidneys
7) Urinary bladder
As per Acharya Susrutha
तच्चषडडःग्ं – शाखाश्रचस्त्रो, मध्यंपञचम्,षष्ठंशिरइति। (सु.शा.५/३)
These six major parts are
• 2 upper extremities
• 2 lower extremities
One Madhya/Middle part or trunk
One Sira (head)
Acharya Susrutha also defined Pratyanga(minor parts) and the further enumeration such as Tvaca, Kala, Yakrit.etc
He also defined their sankha(number) such as TvacahaSapta (skin-seven in number), KalahSapta(Seven Kalaha), membrane, AsyaSapta(Asya/Viiscera are seven) etc . He has also given further detailed description of each.
Chapters of Sharir Sthana:-
|CH NO||CHARAKA||SUSRUTA||ASTANGA HRDYA|
|1||Katidha purushiye sharir adhyaya||Sarva bhuta chinta sharir||Garbha avakranti sharir adhyaya|
|2||Atul Gotriya Sharira Adhyaya||Shukra shonita shuddhi sharir||Garbha Vyapacharira Adhyaya|
|3||Khudika Garbha Avkranti Sharir Adhyaya||Garbha avakranti sharir||Anga vibhaga sharir Adhyaya|
|4||Mahti Garbha Avakranti Sharir Adhyaya||Garbha vyakaran sharir||Marma vibhaga sharir adhyaya|
|5||Purush vicheya sharir adhyaya||Sankhya sharir||Vikrati vigyaniye sharir adhyaya|
|6||Sharir vicheya sharir adhyaya||Pratyeka marma nirdesha sharir||Dutadi vigyaniye sharir adhyaya|
|7||Sharir sankhya sharir adhyaya||Sira varna vibhakti sharir||——|
|8||Jati sutriya sharir adhyaya||Sira vyadha vidhi sharir||——|
|9||——||Dhamani vyakaran sharir||——|
|10||——||Garbhini vyakaran sharir||——|