“ सृज्यते इति सृष्टि ” ।
Shristi means that is evolved or produced.
The description of creation and scenario before creation is available in veda.
“नासादासीन्नो सदासीत्तदानीनासीद्रजो नोव्योमापरोयत् ।
किमावरीव: कुह कस्य शर्मन्नम्भ: किमासीद्वहनं गंभीरम्।।
न मृत्युरासीदमृतं न तर्हि न रात्र्या अह्न आसीत्प्रकेतः।
आनीदवातं स्वधया तदेकं तस्माद्धान्यन्न परः किं चनास।।
Major contribution of shristi varanana is made by sankhya and vaishesika darshan. The vaishesika Darshana explained the cause of creation as parmanu samyoga.
Tattva Nirupana :-
The word Tattva is derived from “तनु विस्तारे” dhatu.
It means “From which the creation is formed , It’s nature and it’s real form”.
Classification of tattva as per sankhya darshan :-
|S. No.||Varga||Tattva Sankhya||Tattva|
|1.||Prakriti||1||Pradhan, prakriti, Avyakta|
|2.||Vikriti||16||PanchKarmendriya + Panchjnanendriya+ Mana + panchmahabhut|
|3.||Prakriti – Vikriti||7||Mahat + Ahankar + Panchtanmatra|
|4.||Na prakriti – Na vikriti (purush)||1||Purush|
|Shristi utpatti as per||No. of Tattva considered|
|Acharya Charaka||24 (चतुर्विंशति तत्त्वात्मक सृष्टि)|
|Acharya Sushruta||25 (पञ्चविंशति तत्त्वात्मक सृष्टि)|
|Yoga Darshana||26 (षड्विंशति तत्त्वात्मक सृष्टि)|
|Sankhya Darshan||25 (पञ्चविंशति तत्त्वात्मक सृष्टि)|
- Charaka mentioned no differentiation of prakriti and purush hence as per him 24 tattvas but Sankhya Darshan and Sushruta considered mula prakriti and purusha as different tattva.
- Yoga Darshan explained shristi karta Ishwar as 26th tattva for creation.
SRISHTI UTPATTI ACCORDING TO SANKHYA DARSHAN :-
‘पंग्वन्धवदुभयोरपि संयोगस्तत्कृत: सर्ग:’।
- Avyakta awastha is the equilibrium stage of sattva , raja and tama.
- Avyakta awastha consist of prakriti and purusha in separate stage and prakriti and purush together cause the creation.
- After prakriti purusha samyoga variation occur.
Avyakta means unmanifested. The avyakta principle is the unmanifested form of pure existence. The origin of Universe is from avyakta. There are 2 main components
- Cause for production but not produced from any thing.Hence it is called Aakaran.
- Prakruti is the creative, primordial and active form that plays the main role in the creation of the Universe.
- Purusha is absolute, pure consciousness. It is a potential energy.
- Purusha does not take an active part in the creation. Purusha is the observer. It is only a witness to the creation.
यतेतद् विसृतं बीजं प्रधान पुरूषातमकम्।
महत्तत्वमिति प्रोक्तं बुद्धितत्त्वमिहोच्यते।।
- This is the first primordial matter developed from Prakruti and Purusha.
- The trigunatmak avyakta gives birth to trigunatmak mahat.
- Adhyavsay is known as mahat or buddhi.
- Buddhi consist of all trigunas but not in equilibrium stage as avyakt.
- It has self- awareness but no differentiation.
*As per sankhya philoshophy it is the first vyakta tattva .
‘अहंकारविमूढात्मा कर्त्ताSहमिति मन्यते’।
(भग० गी०- 3/27)
- When mahad attains ego , it gives rise to ahankar.
- Ahankar is associated with separation and differentiation.
- Ahankar is all about focusing on ‘I’.
“स च त्रिविधो वैकारिकस्तेजसो भूतादिरिति”।
- The trividha ahankar are vaikarika (satvik), tejas (rajsik), and bhutadi (tamsik). Maha Gunas
- From the Ahankara, consciousness get divided into 3 different qualities these are also called as maha gunas.
Satva: Satva is the energy of the cognition. It’s the path of light and knowledge. It is clear.
Raja: Raja is the active form of energy. Raja guna is the movement of precipitants, the time force that moves satva & raja.
Tamas: It is the material matter. Tamas is related with darkness and inertia.
- From tamo guna and rajas guna, 5 great elements (पञ्चमहाभूत) and 5 tanmatras (पञ्चतन्मात्रा) are developed.
‘तत्र वैकारिकादहङ्कारात्तैजससहाय्यात् ।
- By the combination of satva guna and rajas guna, 5 sensory organs(पञ्चज्ञानेन्द्रिय), 5 motor organs(पञ्चकर्मे न्द्रिय) and mind, ( एकादश इन्द्रिय) are developed.
- Chakshurendriya – we see the external world through eye.
- Shravanenedriya – we hear sounds from the outside world with help of ear
- Ghranenedriya – nose is the organ of smell
- Rasanendriya – we perceive sensation of taste with tongue
- Sparshanendriya – sensation of touch is mediated by skin
* पञ्चकर्मे न्द्रिय
- Vak – we talk with our mouth
- Pani – we use hands to perform different activities
- Pada – we use legs for walking
- Upastha – these are the genital organs
- Guda – for excretion of waste products
Manas is called ubhayendriya.
‘मन्यतेSवबुधयते ज्ञायते इति मनः’।
Mind is an entity that has different qualities and performs myriad of functions. It is a tool for sensory as well as motor organs and hence is referred to as the eleventh indriya. Mind is very important in the process of gaining knowledge.
‘भूतादेरपि तैजससहायात् तल्लक्षणान्येव पञ्चतन्मात्रा युतपद्यन्ते’।
- From tamo guna and rajas guna, 5 tanmatras (पञ्चतन्मात्रा) are developed.
-शब्दः स्पर्शश्च रूपश्च रसो गन्धश्च पञ्चतन्मात्राः इतिः।
- 5 Tanmatras (पञ्चतन्मात्रा) are :
महाभूतानि खं वायुरग्निरापः क्षितिस्तथा।
शब्दः स्पर्शश्च रूपश्च रसो गन्धश्च तदगुणाः।।
Panchtanmatra gives origin to panchmahabhuta.
These are as follows:
- Akash Mahabhuta
- Vayu Mahabhuta
- Teja Mahabhuta
- Jala Mahabhuta
- Prithvi Mahabhuta
SRISHTI UTPATTI ACCORDING TO ACHARYA CHARAK :-
AVYAKTA ===> MAHAT ===> AHANKAR ===> PANCHMAHABHUTA ===> PANCHJNANENDRIYA + PANCTANMATRA + PANCHKARMENDRIYA + MANAS ( UBHAYINDRIYA)
|Aakash||Srotendriya + Shabd|
|Aakash + vayu||Sparshaendriya + Sparsha|
|Aakash + Vayu + Agni||Chakshurendriya + Rupa|
|Aakash + Vayu + Agni + Jala||Rasanendiya + Rasa|
|Aakash + Vayu + Agni + Jala + Agni||Ghranendriya + Gandha|