The word Marma comes from Sanskrit origin word ‘mri’ meaning death. The Sanskrit phrase, ‘Marayate Iti Marmani’, also means death or serious damage to body or health after infliction to the point of their situation.
तेषुस्वभावतएवविशेषणप्राणास्तिष्ठन्ति।। (सु.शा. 6/15)
The marma sthana is the grouping of मांस (muscle), सिरा (vessel), स्नायु (ligament), अस्थि (bone), and संधि (joint) in a particular position. The life lies in that location. Where these five structures are usually lies in one region, such region is marma sthana, among these five structures any one may be predominant in that area, which structure is predominant that structure name will be considered as of that marma. The tridosha vata, pitta, kapha and trigunas satva, raja, tama and bhootatma will situate in the marma region.
NUMBERS AND CLASSIFICATION
STRUCTURE WISE MARMA CLASSIFICATIONS
|TYPES OF MARMA||NUMBERS|
EFFECT WISE MARMA CLASSIFICATION
|TYPES OF MARMA||NUMBERS|
REGIONAL WISE MARMA CLASSIFICATION
|TYPES OF MARMA||NUMBERS|
|सक्थि(उर्ध्वऔरअध: शाखा: )||44|
|मर्मसंख्या/भेद TOTAL- 107 MARMAS|
|S NO.||According to Rachana||According to Shadangatva||According to Parinamanusara||According to Vagbhata|
|1.||मांसमर्म-11||ऊर्ध्वशाखा- 22||सद्य: प्राणहराणि- 19||मांसमर्माणि- 10|
|2.||सिरामर्म- 41||अध: शाखा- 22||कालान्तरप्राणहराणि- 33||सिरामर्माणि- 37|
|3.||स्नायुमर्म- 27||मध्यमांग- 26||विशल्यघ्नानि- 03||स्नायुमर्माणि- 23|
|4.||अस्थिमर्म- 08||शिरोग्रीवा- 27||वैकल्यकराणि- 44||अस्थिमर्माणि- 08|
|5.||सन्धिमर्म- 20||——||रुजाकराणि- 08||सन्धिमर्माणि- 20|
The Tri-marmiya Adhyaya are the special attributes to the Marma Chikitsa. To a more or less extent they represent emergency aspect of Ayurvedic treatment. Shira, Hridaya & Basti (Trimarma) are the basic authoritative organs representing the three different systems of the body viz. – Nervous system, Cardio-vascular system & Urinary system. An effort is made in the present paper to view the concept of Trimarma and its importance.
As explained by Charak Samhita in the 26th chapter of Charak Samhita Chikitsa Sthana under the chapter name Trimarmeeya Chikitsa.
The trimarmas are
In modern relations,
- Basti can be correlated with urinary system.
- Hridaya can be correlated with heart.
- Shira can be correlated with head.
सप्तोत्तरंमर्मशतमस्मिञ्छरीरेस्कन्धशाखासमाश्रितमग्निवेश।तेषामन्यतमपीडायांसमधिकापीडाभवति, चेतनानिबन्धवैशेष्यात्।तत्रशाखाश्रितेभ्योमर्मभ्य: स्कन्धाश्रितानीगरीयांसि, शाखानांतदाश्रितत्वात्;स्कन्धाश्रितेभ्योsपिह्रद्वस्तिशिरांसि, तन्मूलत्वाच्छरीरस्य।। (च.सि. 9/3)
The concept of Marma has almost it origin all allied to warfare. After a long period of observation our Acharya observed many such sites on the body, which on injury used to have greater ill effects on the body than the other places. They found a few places, which quickly used to prove hazardous and fatal, than the others. When these Marma where hurt then the warrior collapsed so fast that treatment remained out of question and till the time this Marma where kept unhurt then though injured worse the warrior could be treated for life. Thus it was clear that those places where the special reside of Prana. Years after ubiquitous scrutiny such three places where identified the Trimarma. Anatomically any minor injury to them directly interrupts with the functions of the internal important organs. All such Marma have Sadyahpranahara characteristic and thus are the center of Agni and Vatadosa and so physiologically they play vital responsibility in maintaining the health. Between all the 107 Marma Hridaya and Basti hold a distinguished position in respect to their anatomy and physiology. First of all, it is to be clarified that Hridaya as a Kosthanga has a nearby anatomical feature like heart, however many scholars even today question this correlation. And similarly during the reference of concept of Marma, Hridaya and Basti as a Kosthanga is completely distinct from Hridaya and Basti Marma. Hridaya Marma is situated in chest superficially above the Hridaya Kosthanga, if Hridaya is considered as heart. Thus anatomically its site becomes important. It is a Sadyapranahara and Shira Marma, so is the center of Agni and Vata Dosa and includes important Sira (arteries and veins) of that region. Moreover it is also the place of Satva, Raja, Tama (Trigunas). Thus it Plays significant role maintaining the physiology of Hridaya. Thus both anatomically and physiologically the HridayaMarma is the place of prime importance. Hence it was included as one of the Trimarma. Basti is another such important Marma.
HRIDAYA AS TRIMARMA
Showing the importance of Hridaya as a Trimarma Acharya Charak quotes that it is the residency of 10 principle dhamani (arteries and veins), Prana and Apana Vayu, Mann, Buddhi, Chetana, and Mahabhuta.
From these verse it can be understood that on injury or being diseased Hridaya all the above factors are affected more or less. Hence any minor injury to it proves fatal. The residency of mana can be proved in HridayaMarma as many a times major psychological trauma plays a role to cardiac arrest.
- Kasa (cough)
- Swas (all respiratory problem)
- Balkshaya (weakness/loss of immunity)
- Kanthasoas (dryness of throat or any problem in the throat region)
- Emaciation of face and tongue.
- Apasman (epilepsy)
- Unmada (Psychosis)
- Pralapa (delirium)
- Chittanash (loss of consciousness/coma)
SHIRAH AS TRIMARMA
शिरसिइन्द्रियाणिइन्द्रियप्राणवहानिचस्त्रोतांसिसूर्यमिवगभस्तय: संश्रितानि। (च.सि. 9/4)
In Ayurveda Shirah is having prime importance among all the organs of body. Its passes the criteria to be included in Trimarmas as it has thirty seven different Marmas on its hand. The following references expound its importance as a Trimarma. It is considered as Uttamanga i.e. supreme, important and major part of the body. It is considered as principal vital organs of the body where the Prana i.e. life along with sense faculties resides. All the sense organs and the channels carrying the sensory and vital impulses from the Shirah are like the rays from the sun. This verse truly signifies Shirah as a Trimarma as it correlates it completely to the Brain. Thus if there is any minor injury to the organ leads to death or disastrous symptoms. Acharya Vagbhat has compared human being with a tree, with roots at the top and branches at the bottom and defined head as a site where all sense organs along with the Prana resides. Thus it is supreme of all organs as consciousness is present in it. Tree grows properly when its roots are free from diseases, similarly a man whose head is free of disease, possess sound growth. Shaunakya and Kumarshira Bharadwaj emphasized that head of the fetus develops first, because it is the site of all the important Indriyas. Vagbhat has described ten Jivita Dhatu which are Shirah (head), Rasanabandhana (ligament of tongue), Kantha (throat), Asra (blood), Hridaya (heart), Nabhi (umbilicus), Basti (urinary bladder), Sukra (semen), Ojas (essence of Dhatu) and Guda (rectum and anus). Furthermore, there are 107 Marmas (vital parts) in the human body and the Pradhana Marma is Shirah. It is a Sadyopranahara Marmas. Susruta also quotes that injury to Shirah may lead to death of the patient. According to Charak it may lead to rigidity of the sides of the neck, facial paralysis, agitation of the eyes, stupefaction, and constricting pain in the head, loss of movement, cough, dyspnoea, trismus, dumbness, stuttering speech, closed condition of the eyelids, twitching of the cheeks, yawning fits, Ptyalism, Aphasia and facial asymmetry.
- Manyastambha (cervical spondylosis)
- Ardita (facial paralysis)
- Tam-pravesh (blackness infront of eyes)
- Squeezing type of pain (in migraine)
- Loss of motor functions
- Loss of senses
- Different diseases of memory
BASTI AS TRIMARMA
Acharya Susruta quotes giving the importance of Basti as an organ hosting the Prana. Acharya Charak also quotes the importance of Basti as a Trimarma saying that it means that the region named Basti is in the middle of Sthula Guda, Muska, Sevani, the Nadi channels transporting Mutra and Sukra. It acts as the Adhara of Mutra. As different rivers fill the ocean in similar fashion all the Ambuvaha Srotas –channels transporting water fill the Basti. Similarly in Ashtanga Sangraha, Acharya Vagabhat during the description of surgical treatment of Mutra Ashmari quotes that an ill practiced surgeon would result into death of the patient undergoing the surgery by injuring the Mutravaha Srotas – Basti.
- Obstruction of urine, flatus, faeces.
- Pain in groin area.
- Pain in pubic area.
- Different symptoms of renal stones and other vatas vyadhis.
IMPORTANCE OF TRIMARMA
Acharya Charak quotes in Siddhi-sthana that the importance of Marma is known by the fact that it has extraordinary relation to Prana and hence any minor injury to Marma leads to major problems. Similar shadow is seen in the quotation of Acharya Susruta. Acharya Vagabhat, in Asthanga Sangraha, adds that, if not taken off from being injured Marma leads to the destruction of the body. Thus they are important as a site of life to the living organisms.
FUNCTION OF TRIMARMA
The general functions of Trimarmas are: The Trimarmas are the center points of life. Beside Prana; the Trigunas reside in them. In addition to that they are the center of Agni, Soma and, Vayu. They act as SadyanpranaharaMarma and so if injured lead to death within seven days. They are the center of energy. For e.g. Hridaya Marma pumps the Rasa Dhatu to all the parts of the body. They are the center of coordination. For e.g. as Mana, resides in Shira Marma (Bhel Samhita) and it is known control center of all the Indriyas. They act as the congregate of different Marma. e.g. the Shira Marma. They are the center authoritative organ of the three life sensing system of the body. They function like the tripod of life.
According to this study we can say that prevention is better than cure. Instead of treating dreadful diseases everyone must try to prevent from getting them. Ayurveda states 3 basic Marmas i.e. the vital points where Prana (live) are situated and any trauma to this spots may cause to death. Those 3 Marmas are Hridaya (Heart), Shira (head) & Basti (bladder). The Prana means vital breath resides in Hridaya, Basti and Shira. Hence one should make each and every effort to protect them. The protection of vital parts consists of avoidance of impending factors, observation of code of conduct for the healthy and remedy of disorder. Out of hundred and seven vital parts mentioned under enumeration of body parts Basti, Hridaya and Shira regarded as important once by the experts because these three are the seat of Prana and vital breath.