The soul which is born in a physical body in this world perceives the world through the Indriya. Indriya are the media which manifest the characters of life. It is the component or instrument which makes difference of living and nonliving objects. The Ayurveda recognizes 11indriyas (एकादश इन्द्रिय) namely five senses of action (कर्मेन्द्रिय), five senses of cognition (ज्ञानेन्द्रिय) and one manas(उभयेन्द्रिय).
The word jnanendriya comes from the roots jnana, which means “wisdom,” and Indra, who was the God of the sensory heaven hence Jnanendriya is also known as Buddhindriya . The mind is very sensitive and feels all vibrations around. It identifies, organizes and interprets all the sensory information that it receives. It enjoys and relishes the world through Jnanendriya.
Jnanendriya are also known as prameya i.e. the object of true knowledge or jnana vishaya.
योsर्थं प्रमीयते तत्प्रमेयम् । (वास्त्यायन)
All the items of body or world through which we get the knowledge are known as prameya. Hence, we can consider jnanendriya as prameya.
Indriya are responsible for the consciousness i.e. it is chaitanyakarana.
सेन्द्रियं चेतनं द्रव्यं निरिन्द्रयमचेतनम् ।
The Dravya with Indriya are known as Chetana and Dravya without Indriya are known as Achetana .
Many words in ayurveda that are used for the Jnanendriya. Following are the some important synonyms of Jnanendriya :-
- Linga ,
- Drashta ,
- Srashta ,
- Dhata ,
- Jnana ,
- Aishwarya ,
- Bahya jnana karana ,
- Bahya karana.
- The word jnanendriya formed by the combination of two words i.e. Jnan and Indriya.
(ज्ञानेन्द्रिय = ज्ञान+इन्द्रिय)
- The root word ज्ञान means wisdom or knowledge.
(इन्द्र + घञ् प्रत्यय = इन्द्रिय)
- The term इन्द्र means Atma or jnana karan or vishayasadhanaThe word Indriya is derived from the mool word Indra.
आत्मनो विषयोपलब्धिकरणमीश्वरसृष्टेषु ज्ञानसाधनम् ।
- Jnanendriya is defined as the tools for gaining the knowledge of atma and manas .
आत्मा ज्ञः करणैर्योगाज्ज्ञानं तवस्य प्रवर्तते ।
(च. शा. 1/54)
- Indriyas are atmajnanpravartaka. It is Chaitanya karana ,Bahyavastujnankaran and atmajnansadhak.
- Jnanendriya are five in number i.e. पञ्चज्ञानेन्द्रिय.
तत्र चक्षुः श्रोत्रं घ्राणं रसनं स्पर्शनमिती पञ्चेन्द्रियाणि ।
(च. सु.- 8/8)
- Panchjnanendriya are as follows :-
As per Sankhyaphilosophy and other Indian philosophy :-
- According to Sankhya philosophy vaikarikaahankar with support of taijasahankar gives the production of all indriya.
- Yoga darshan also treated indriya as ahankarik.
- Hence as per Sankhya philosophy and Yoga philosphyjnanedriya is ahankarik.
- In this way Ekadashindriya originated from vaikarika Ahankar and Taijas Ahankar.
- Now Ekadashindriya is again subdivided into three groups i.e. jnanendriya , karmendriya , and manas.
As per Acharya Charak
- According to AcharyaCharakIndriya is not ahankarik, but it is bhautik.
- It is originated from panchmahabhoota.
एकैकाधिकयुक्तानि खादीनामिन्द्रयाणि तु।
पञ्च कर्मानुमेयानि येभ्यो बुद्धि प्रवर्तते।।
- Jnanendriya originated from panchmahabhoota in the following manner :-
|2. Sparshaendriya||Aakash + Vayu|
|3. Chakshurindriya||Aakash + Vayu +Agni|
|4. Rasanendriya||Aakash + Vayu +Agni+Jal|
तत्रानुमानगम्यानां पञ्चमहाभूतविकारसमुदायत्मकानामपि सतामिन्द्रियाणां तेजशचक्षुषि,खं श्रोत्रे, घ्राणे क्षितिः, आपो रसने, स्पर्शनेsनिलो विशेषेणोपद्यते।
- Aakash , Vayu , Agni,Jal and Prithvimahabhoota are predominant in the formation of ShravanenedriyaSparshaendriya ,Chakshurindriya ,Rasanendriya and Ghranendriyarecpectively .
- Adhisthan are the places or organ where Jnanendriya are situated.
पञ्चइन्द्रियाधिष्ठानानि- अक्षिणीकर्णौ नासिकेजिह्वा त्वक् चेति ।
There are five indriyaadhisthan present in the human body.
- Five indriyaadhisthan are Akshini , Karna , Naasa , Jihwa and Twacha.
- Jnanendriya are related to their adhisthan in following way :-
- In this way jnanendriya are placed in the body .
- Karna can bedivided into three parts i.e. Baahya ,Madhya and Antahkarna .
- Vagbhatadescribes the formation of twacha due to paka of raktdhatu.
- According to Shusrutasamhita, AstangaHridaya ,Sharangdhara Samhita and Bhavprakash there are 7 layers of twacha but AstangaSangrah , Kashyap Samhita and Charak Samhita describes 6 layers of twacha.
|Charak Samhita||Shushruta Samhita|
|· Udakdhara||· Avabhasini|
|· Asrukdhara||· Lohita|
|· 3rd layer||· Shweta|
|· 4th layer||· Tamra|
|· 5th layer||· Vedini|
|· 6th layer||· Rohini|
- The netrabudbuda is 2 anguli in circumference.
- The netra consists of :-
5 Mandala ,
6 Sandhees and
- Naasa consist of three asthi.
- It is also known as vishaya of indriya because it is the main subject for the perception.
- Indriyartha are the objects of the sense organs.
- It may be correlated with appropriate stimulus.
- Indriyarthais also called tanmatra.
पञ्चेन्द्रियार्थाः– शब्द स्पर्श रूप रस गन्धाः।
- Shabd ,Sparsha, Roopa, Ras and Gandha are the five indriyartha.
- Indriyartha are related with jnanendriya in the following way :-
| 5. Ghranendriya
- Shabd is produced by the vibration or disturbance that cause condensation and rarefaction in the air. This wave that produced in air enter as shabd in to karna.
- Shabd is again subdivided into two groups. They are
- Sparsha are of three types. These are:-
- Sheet ,
- Ushna and
- Rupa means different complexion and colouration.
- Rupa are seven types. They are:-
- Shukla ,
- Nila ,
- Rakta ,
- Pita ,
- Harita ,
- Kapila and
Rasa are six in number, they are :-
- Madhura ,
- Amla ,
- Tikta ,
- Katu and
- Gandha are classified in to two groups. They are :-
- Surabhi and
Indriya – Buddhi :-
- The panchindriyajnan or knowledge gained after the samyoga of indriyartha with jnanendriya is called Indriya – Buddhi.
- These jnan are originated by the samyoga of indriyartha ,indriya , manas and atma.
पञ्चेन्द्रियबुद्धयः – चक्षुर्बुद्धयादिकाः। ( च.सु.8/12)
- Five indriyabuddhi corresponding to the five jnanendriya are :-
|Jnanendriya||Indriya – Buddhi|
| 5. Ghranendriya
- These buddhi are kshanik or for an instant.
- The indriya – indriyarthasamyoga is classified in to satmya i.e. compatible and asatmya i.e. incompatible samyoga.
- The asatmyaindriyaarthasamyoga is again of 3 types:-
- Hina yoga
- Mithya yoga
- Ati yoga.
- Hina yoga is the insufficient utilization of sense organs.
- Mithyayoga is perception of false things.
- Ati yoga is the excessive utilization of the sense organs.
Here are five sense organs , five matters of these sense organs, five locations of these sense organs, five sense objects of these and five sense perception, all these 5 of five sense organs are called panchpanchaka.
|Indriya||Indriya Adhisthan||Indriya Dravya||Indriyartha||Indriya Buddhi|
|3. Chakshurindriya||Krishna taragra of two chakshu||Tejas||Rupa||Chakshurbuddhi|
|4. Sparshanendriya||Twak sarvavyapi||Vayu||Sparsha||Sparsha-buddhi|
|5. Shrotendriya||Karna-vivara of both the ears||Akasha||Shabda||Shrotra-buddhi|
- In this way we can say that factors responsible for the process of perception are:-
- Appropriate stimulus – indriyartha
- Sense receptors to receive stimulus – indriya
- Sensory pathway – manas
- Concerned sensory jnan i.e. indriyabuddhi
- The origin of jnanendriya is ahankarik as per different Indian philosophy but it is bhautik as per Ayurveda.