Marma

The term marma is etymologically derived from Sanskrit root word “mri(ek)” which represents the sense of vital part of the body

According to Dalhana:-

“मारयन्तीति मर्माणि”

Injuries to “marma” are likely to result fatal.

According to Vriddha Vagabhata(astanga sangraha):-

“अपि च मरणकारित्वान्मर्म”

Which leads to or causes death.

The commentetor Arundatta  recognizes the marma as a particular place which brings on death on any trauma or injury,

“म्रियत अस्मिन् अंग उपहते इति मर्म”

IMPORTANCE OF KNOWLEDGE OF MARMAS :-

A detailed descriptiopn of marma given in Sushruta Samhita, Sharira Sthana in chapter no. 6.

“मर्मणि शल्यविषयार्धमुदाहरन्ति, यस्माच्चर्ममंसु हता न भवन्ति  सद्य ।

जीवन्ति तत्र यदि वैद्यगुणेन केचित्, ते प्राप्नुवन्ति विकलत्वमसंशयं हि ।।  (सु. श. 6/33)”

Marma are considered as the half of the surgery subject as any injury to marmas can prove to be fatal so if patient is promptly treated by a  skilled doctor even though the patient will suffer from excessive pain

Acharya also state that person encountering injury leading to damage to it head, viscera ort leading to loosing his limb or even trauma to his whole body may survive if marmas of the body escape the injury

Any trauma to marma will surely produce pain or can cause death and if any disease involving the marma and will always difficult to treat.

 

 

DEFINITION OF THE MARMA

1)According to the charaka :-

“हृदर्येमूर्न्बिस्तो च नूणां प्राणाः प्रतिष्ठिताः।
तस्मात्तषां सदा यंत्नं कुर्वीत पारिपालने।।   (च. सि. 9/9)”

Marma are the vital parts and seat of prana or chetna in the body .charaka had advocated that the marmas must be safeguard cautiously and for this he considered Svastharuta

2) According to Sushrut :-

“मर्मणि नाम मांस सिरास्नायुसंध्यस्थिसन्निपातास्तेषु स्वभावत एव प्रणास्तिष्ठन्ति।  (सु. श. 6/6)”

The marma are (anatomically site) juncture (meeting) place of mamsa (muscular tissue),sira(blood vessels),snayu(nervous tissue) asthi (osseous tiussue) and sandhi(joints).The prana arer specifically situated in these marma by the virtue of their nature,hence  a trauma to any one of these  marma invariably causes physical disturbances in accordance with their particular types.

 

3)According to Vridhha Vagbhata :-

“तत्पुमर्मासि सिरास्नायु अस्थि सन्धि सन्निपातः।

तेन तस्मिन् पीड्यमाने विशेषतः प्रणाबाधः।।  (अ. सं. श 7/13)”

Like, sushruta he has  also recognized the marma as an agglomeration of mamsa(muscular tissue)sira(blood vessels )snayu(nerves)asthi (bones) and sandhi(joints), any trauma to these specific  stuctuires of the body is likely to cause death, hence such area or spots in the body have been designated as “marma”

4)According to Vagabhata :-

“विषस्पन्दनं यत्र पीडिते रूक च मर्म तत् ।

मासास्थि स्नायु धमनी सिरा सन्धि समागमः ।

स्यान्मर्मेति च तेनात्र सुतरां जीवितं स्थितम् ।।  (अ. हृ. श.  4/37,38)”

Marma is the part of the body showing irregular pulsation and  and on applying pressure generates pain and is composed of mamsa ,snayu,dhamani,sira sandhi and also said it as seat of jiva.

NUMBER OF MARMA :-

There are 107 marmas and are of 5 types .

CLASSIFICATION OF MARMAS :-

Marmas are classified on different basis

1)classification based on structure or body organs involved

2)classification based on consequences of trauma over the marma area

3)classification based on sites and location of marma

4)classification based on area or site of marma

5)classification based on sankhya(number) of marma

1)CLASSIFICATION BASED ON STRUCTURE OR BODY ORGANS INVOLVED :-

SL.NO TYPES OF MARMA CHARAKA

 

SUSHRUT VRIDDHA VAGBHATA VAGBHATA
1. MAMSA 11 11 10
2. SIRA 41 41 37
3. SNAYU 27 27 23
4. ASTHI 8 8 8
5. SANDHI 20 20 20
6. DHAMANI
TOTAL 107 107 107 107

 

1.Mamsa Marma :-

Marma Sushruta Vagbhata
Talahridaya 4 4
Indravasti 4 4
Guda 1
Stanrohita 2 2
Total 11 10

 2.Sira Marma :-

Marma Sushruta Vagbhata
Neela 2 2
Manya 2 2
Matrika 8 8
Srigngatka 4
Apanga 2
Sthapani 1 1
Phana 2 2
Sthanmoola 2 2
Apalapa 2 2
Apasthambha 2
Hridaya 1 1
Nabhi 1 1
Parswasandhi 2 2
Brihati 2 2
Lohitaksha 4 4
Urvi 2 2
Kakshadhara 2 2
Vitapa 2 2
Total 41 33

 

3.Snayu Marma :

Marma Sushruta Vagbhata
Ani 4 4
Vitapa 2
Kakashadhara 2
Kurcha 4 4
Kurchashira 4 4
Vasti 1 1
Kshipra 4 4
Amsa 2 2
Vidhura 2 2
Utshepa 2 2
Apanga 2
Total 27 23

 

4.Asthi Marma :-

Marma Sushruta Vagbhata
Kateekataruna 2 2
Nitamba 2 2
Amsaphalaka 2 2
Shankha 2 2
Total 8 8

 

5.Sandhi Marma :-

Marma Sushruta Vagbhata
Janu 2 2
Kurpara 2 2
Seemantha 5  5
Adhipati 1  1
Gulpha 2  2
Manibandha 2  2
Kukundara 2  2
Krikatika 2  2
Total  20  20

 

6.Dhamani Marma :-

Marma Vagbhata
Guda 1
Apasthambha 2
Vidhura 2
Sringataka 4
Total 9

 

2)CLASSIFICATION BASED ON CONSEQUENCES OF TRAUMA OVER THE MARMA AREA :-

SL.NO TYPES OF MARMA SUSHRUT Predominant Mahabhuta Result of Injury
1. SADHYA PRANAHARA 19 Agni Immediate death
2. KALANTARA PRANAHARA 33 Jala+Agni Death within 15 – 30 days if proper treatment is not given
3. VISHALYGHNA 03 Vayu Soon the removal of injury object the person is going to die but if injury object falls itself the person can survive.
4. VAIKALYAKARA 44 Jala Cause Deformities
5. RUJAKARA 08 Agni+Vayu Highly painful but no deformities.
  TOTAL 107    

                       

                                

3)CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SITES AND LOCATIONS OF MARMA :-

SL.NO NAME OF MARMA SUSHRUT
1. SAKTHIGAT MARMA 22
2. BAHUGAT MARMA 22
3. UDARGAT MARMA 3
4. VAKSHAGAT MARMA 9
5. PRISHTHAGAT 14
6. JATROORDHVAGAT MARMA 37
TOTAL 107

4) CLASSIFICATION IN THE BASIS OF MEASUREMENT/SIZE/AREA OR PARIMAP/PARIVISTAR :-

1)EKANGULAMANA MARMA

SL.NO NAME OF MARMA SUSHRUT
1. URVI 2
2. BAHVI 2
3. KURCHSHIR 4
4. VITAP 2
5. KAKSHADHAR 2
6. STANMOOL 2
TOTAL 14

2)DWIANGULAMANA MARMA

SL.NO NAME OF MARMA SUSHRUT
1. GULF 2
2. MANIBANDH 2
TOTAL 4

3)TRIANGULAMANA

SL.NO NAME OF MARMA SUSHRUT
1. JANU 2
2. KURPAR 2
TOTAL 4

5)CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SANKHYA(NUMBER) OF MARMA :-

1)MARMA –ONE IN  NUMBER (EKA SANKHYA)

SL.NO NAME OF MARMA SUSHRUT
1. HRDAYA 1
2. NABHIU 1
3. VASTI 1
4. GUDA 1
5. STHAPANI 1
6. ADHIPATI 1
TOTAL 6

2)MARMA- TWO IN NUMBER (DWISANKHYA)

Sl.no NAME OF MARMA SUSHRUT
1. GULPA 2
2. JANU 2
3. URVI 2
4. VITAPA 2
5. MANIBANDHA 2
6. KURPARA 2
7. BAHVI 2
8. KAKSHADHARA 2
9. STANMULA 2
10. STANAROHITA 2
11. APALAPA 2
12. APASTHAMBHA 2
13. KATIKATARUN 2
14. KUNDARA 2
15. NITAMBA 2
16. PARSHVASANDHI 2
17 BRUHATI 2
18. AMSA 2
19. AMSAPHALAK 2
20. KRIKATIKA 2
21. NILA 2
22. MANYA 2
23. VIDHURA 2
24. PHANA 2
25. APANGA 2
26. AVARTA 2
27. UTKSHEPA 2
28. SHANKHA 2
TOTAL 56

3)MARMA-FOUR IN NUMBER(CHATURSANKHYA)

SL.NO NUMBER OF MARMA SUSHRUT
1. KSHIPRA 4
2. TALAHRIDAYA 4
3. KURCHA 4
4. KURCHA SIRA 4
5. INDRAVASTI 4
6. ANI 4
7. LOHITAKSHA 4
8. SRINGATAKA 4
TOTAL 32

4)MARMA-FIVE IN NUMBER(PANCHASANKHYA)

SL.NO NUMBER OF MARMA SUSHRUT
1. SIMANTA 5
TOTAL 5

5)MARMA-EIGHT IN NUMBER (ASTASANKHYA )

SL.NO NUMBER OF MARMA SUSHRUT
1. MATRKA 8
TOTAL 8

MARMA OF UPPER LIMB :-

1)KSHIPRA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated in between the thumb and index finger. This marma is better felt on the dorsal part of the palm when the thumb and the index finger are slightly abducted(separated) so that the space between them is widend. 1)The tendon of adductor pollicis .

2)Tendon of deep portion of flexor pollicis brevis.

3)Branches of radial artery in hand.

4) Branches of deep volar /palmar arch .

5)Arteria volaris radialis indicis.

6) Digital branches of the median nerves .

7) First dorsal interosseous muscles.

8) First dorsal metacarpal artery .

 

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2)Tala Hridaya marma

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated in the mid of the palm at joining the line along with the middle finger 1)Intermediate part of the palmar aponeurosis .

2)Superficial palmar arch.

3)Deep palmar arch .

4) Adductor pollicis .

5)Flexor pollicis brevis.

6)Interosseous lumbricals.

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3) KURCHA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It ia situated above the kshipra( between thumb and index finger) in the upper extremity. 1)At the palmar surface.

a)Tendon of flexor pollicis longus.

b)Tendon of flexor carpi radialis .

c)Median nerves.

2)At the dorsal surface .

a)Tendon of extensor pollicis longus.

b)Tendon of extensor carpi radialis,longus nad brevis.

4) KURCHA SIRA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated below the manibandh sandhi and two angula above kurcha marma . This area points to the thenar eminence. 1)Ulnar and radial collateral ligaments.

2)Intercarpal ligaments.

3)Transverse carpal ligaments .

4)Ulnar artery.

5)Median nerve and superficial branch of ulnar nerves.

6)Intercarpal articulations.

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5)MANIBANDHA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated at the junction of arm and hand.This indicates towards the wrist joint . All Acharya are of view that this marma can be

Justifiedly correlated with wrist

joint(radiocarpal) and distal radio-ulnar joints.Since both are in close proximity

6)INDRA BASTI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is present in the middle of the forearm.This are corresponds to the muscular area in the forearm. 1)Radial artery and its branches .

2)Palmar interosseous branch of ulnar artery .

3)Pronator teres .

4)Flexor digitorum.

5)Flexor carpi radialis .

7)KURPARA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated at the junction of forearm and arm i.e at elbow joint.This marma includes both elbow joint and superior radioulnar joint . All anatomist are of opinion that this marma corresponds  to both elbow jopint and superior radioulnar joint.

8)ANI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
This marma is present three angula above the kurpara marma . 1)      Profunda brachii artery.

2)      Median nerve .

3)      Ulnar  nerve .

4)      Radial nerve .

5)      Biceps.

6)      Triceps .

7)      Coracobrachialis .

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9)URVI MARMA

ANBATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated in middle of arm above the ani marma.The whole length of the arm is sixteen angula,so this marma should be present at eight angula from the kurpara sandhi. Dr.Pathak is of opinion that Brachial artery,,Brachial vein, Median and Ulnar nerve present in close proximity on upper part of arm,this area should be accounted as urvi marma of upper limb .

10)LOHITAKSHA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated above the bhavi(urvi) marma and below the kaksha sandhi(shoulder joint), at the root of upper limb. a)Brachial artery with its venae comitants.

b)Median and ulnar nerve .

c)Pectoralis minor and major.

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11)KAKSHADHARA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated at the junction of thorax and shoulder joint.This is area of two inches below the point joining the lateral 1/3rd and medial 2/3rd  of clavicle . Most of the anatomist are of opinion that this marma corresponds to the region of brachial plexus with axillary  vessels.i,e area of two inches below the point joining the lateral 1/3rd and medial 2/3rd of clavicle.This region corresponds to the first part of axillary artery .
110.jpg

MARMA OF LOWER LIMB :-

1)KSHIPRA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
MARMA.pngSituated in between the big toe and the second toe of the foot.This marma is better felt on the dorsal part of the foot when the big toe and second toe are separate apart. Underlying important anatomical structures and their applied anatomy.

1)Adductor Hallucis Brevis,.

2)Lumbricalis muscles.

3)Posterior tibial nerve.

4)Dorsal metatarsal artery.

5)Plantar arch and medial plantar artery .

6)Metatarsal-phalangeal joint.

 

2)TALA HRIDAYA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated in the mid of the sole of the foot and in a straight line drawn from the root of the middle toe.Marma talahridaya is situated in the centre of the sole in a straight line drawn from the root of the madhyama anguli(middle tow). Underlying important anatomical structures and their applied anatomy :corresponding  to above description, the anatomical structures likely to fall under the area of this marma are-

1)Muscles in the sole of the foot(from below upwards).

2)Plantar aponeurosis Plantar arch of arteries.

4)Long plantar ligament.

5)Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve(accompanies the plantar arch).

                 dff

 

3)KURCHA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
Above the kshipra marma(between the big toe and the second toe )is the lower extremity the kurcha marmna exist. Acoording to vagabhata above marma is situated 2 fingers above the kshipra . Underlying anatomiucal stuctures

1)At the dorsal surface .

a)Tendon of flexor hallucis longus .

b)Tendon of flexor digitorum longus.

2)At the plantar surface.

a) Tendon of peroneus longus.

b)Tendon of extensor hallucis longus.

c) Tendon of extensor digitorium longus .

d)Medial plantar nerve.

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4)KURCHA SIRA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
This marma is situated below gulpa sandhi . Underlying important anatomical structures and their applied anatomy

1)Tributaries of short saphenous vein .

2) Peroneal nerve .

3)Peroneus brevis and longus muscle.

4)Peronial artery .

5)Flexor and extensor retinaculum.

6)Deltoid ligaments,talocalcaneal and calcaneofibular ligaments.

            l.jpg

5)GULPHA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
This marma is situated at junction of foot and leg. This indicates towards ankle joint. Underlying important anatomical sturctures and their applied anatomy: Dr.Patil and Dr. J.N.Mishra considered the ankle joint in this marma while Dr.Ghanakar considered ankle joint (talocrural) and inferior tibiofibular joint to be included in this marma.
1

6)INDRAVASTI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated in the mid of jangha(leg) in the line of parsani (heel or calcaneum).This indicates towards the calf region of leg. 1)Posterior tibial nerve .

2)Drainage of lymph to the popliteal lymph glands .

3)Calf muscles-gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris muscle .

                                              2.jpg

7)JANU MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
It lies at the junction of jangha(leg) and uru(thigh) and situated at the joint form by the junction of femur and tibia bones that is knee joint. a)Ligamnents of knee joint

b)Popliteal vessels.

c)Common peroneal nerves and tibial nerve .

d)Ligamentum patellae.

e)Patellae bone .

f)Lateral and medial meniscus.

g) Cruciate ligament.

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8)Ani marma

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated ion both sites(leg of lower one third part of femur)three finger above the janu(knee joint). a)Tendon of quadriceps femoris.

b)Tendon of bicep femoris.

semitendinosus,semimembranosus, and gracilis

c) Popliteal vessels and nerve(tibial and common peroneal nerve.

d)Femoral artery .

 

   4

9)URVI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated in the mid of uru(thigh). a)Adductor canal.

b)Femoral vessels .

c)Saphaneous nerve.

d)Profunda femoral artery.

e) Sciatic nerve.

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10)LOHITAKSHA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated above the urvi marma and below the vanksha sandhi(hip joint) and at the root of femur . a)Femoral vessels and nerve .

b) Great saphenous vein and its junction through saphenous opening with femur vein .

c) Profunda femoral artery following its junction with  femoral artery .

d)Profunda femoral vein following its ju=nction with femoral vein.

                                                              6.png

11)VITAPA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE/SURFACE ANATOMY REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated between vanksana (groin or hip joint) and the vrishana(testes) in both side. A)Inguinal canal and its contents.

b) Testicular and deferential artery.

c) Testicular nerve .

d) Fallopian tube .

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Marma of abdomen :-

1)Guda marma

ANATOMOICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to Sushruta it is attached to large intestine . a)External sphincter ani muscle .

b)Internal sphincter ani muscle .

c)Levator ani muscle.

d)Inferior hemorrhoidal nerve plexus .

e)Inferior hemorrhoidal artery and vein.

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2)BASTI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANMTOMY
According to Sushruta it is situated inside the pelvis and store house of urine . Dr.Pathak considered urinary bladder for vasti marma and suggested that peritoneal nerve is the main structure attached or related to this marma.He also suggested that ureter should also included in basti marma .
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3)NABHI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to Sushruta it is situated between intestine and stomach and is the seat of origin of blood vessels. Dr.Ramraksha  Pathaka

a)      Inferior epigastric artery and vein .

b)      Rectus abdominialis muscle.

Dr. J.N.Mishra :Umblical region is related to nabhi and contains duodenum,colon, small inrtestine and celiac artery.

MARMA OF CHEST :-

1)HRIDAYA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to Sushruta it is situated between breasts occupying the partition in the chest at the level of opening of stomach . All Acharya considered this marma as the heart.
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2)STANMULA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to Shushruta it is situated two angula below breast on both side . Dr.Ghanekar has conclude the lower portion of pectoralis major muscle as this marma .Dr. Pathaka considered the base of lung for this stanmula marma .Dr.V.S.Patil suggested that the base of lung mainly the diaphragm and its vessels and nerves are related to this marma .

3)STANAROHITA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SUITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to Sushruta it is situated two angula bove the nipple of breast on both side . Dr.Ramraksha pathaka he considered intercostal muscle and most of the structure related to lungs as stanrohita .

a)Phrenic nerve.

b)Vagus nerve.

c)Superior vena cava .

d)Descending aorta .

e)Bronchus.

f)Pulmonary artery and vein .

g)Pulmonary plexus .

h)Lymphatic vessels and nerve  .

4)APALAPA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to sushruta it is situated between Amsakutas  in the upper  position of sides. a)Brachial plexus with its branches

b)Axillary artery .

c)Axillary vein .

d)Lymphatic vessels in axilla .

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5)APASTHAMBHA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANTOMY
According to sushruta it is situated on both sides of chest as two vata carrying Nadis . 1)Bronchus artery.

2)Phrenic nerve.

3)Vagus nerve.

4)Common carotid artery.

5)Subclavian vein.

MARMA OF BACK :-

1)KUKUNDARA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to sushruta ,it is present in two flanks,on the outerside of buttocks on the two sides of the vertebral column . Dr.Ramrakshra Pathak:According to him

kukundara marma is function region of ilium&sacrum,from where sciatic nerve emerge.

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2)KATIKATARUN MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONALK ANATOMY
According to Sushruta,it is situated on either sides of vertebral column near bony pelvis. Dr.Ramraksha Pathak:According to him following structure are related to this marma-

a)Posterior aspect of ilium.

b)Bifurcation of the common iliac artery opposite the lumbo-sacral articulation into the external iliac and internal iliac arteries.

c)Sacro iliac ligament.

3)NITAMBA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to sushruta ,it is present above the pelvis,covering the internal organs and are attached to the flanks. a)Floating ribs.

b)Lumbar plexus and other important structure nearby.

4)PARSVA SANDHI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to Sushruta it is situated near the lower end of flanks,in between buttocks and flanks to the side and above the buttocks. Dr.Ramraksha Pathak:He considered renal artery arising from the abdominal aorta and the renal vein as “parsva sandhi” marma .

5)BRIHATI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to sushruta,it is present in the same straight line from the fatal spot stanmula on both sides of vertebral column . 1)The vessels at the hilum of liver .

2)The vessels at the hilum of spleen .

Dr.Patil considered base of the lungs  and diaphragm and the bare area at the inferior angle of scapula with subscapular artery/intercostalis vessels behind the pleura in the intercostalis space as the marma

6)AMSAPHALAKA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to Sushruta it is situated at the upper part of back on the two side of the vertebral column and near to trika . Dr.Ramraksha Pathak:According to him,this marma is formed by scapula related marma and vessels .Dr.Patil considered the whole scapula under the heading of this marma .

7)AMSA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to sushruta,it is situated in between arms,head and neck which bind the shoulder blade and shoulder . Dr.Ramraksha Pathak:He considered following structure are related to Amsa  marma

1)Coraco clavicular ligaments .

2)Conoid ligament.

3)Trapezoid ligament.

4)Superior acromio-clavicular ligament .

5)Coraco-acromial ligament .

MARMA OF NECK :-

1)NILA MARMA AND MANYA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to sushruta there are four dhamanies out of which two are Mila and two Manya situated in the neck of either side of the Kanthnadi. 1)Superior Laryngeal nerve .

2)Glossopharyngeal.

3)Hypoglossal nerve .

4)Carotid artery .

5)Juglar vein.

6)Superior thyroid artery.

7)Lingual Artery .

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2)MATRIKA MARMA

ANATOMICALK SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated at the root or lower  portion of the neck. 1)Common carotid along with internal and external branches .

2)Carotid sinus and carotid carotid body.

3)Internal and external juglar veins .

4)Common facial veins.

5)Thyrocervical trunk.

6)Sympathetic and parasympathetic plexus .

7)Vagus and phrenic nerves .

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3)KRIKATIKA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is present  at the junction of head and neck. Dr.R.R Pathak is of opinion that this marma corresponds to the atlanto-occipital

joint.Acharya Gananath Sen was of opinion that it is a cartilage at lower side of the larynx,which is noway in-coherence to the traumatic outcome of the marma mentioned by the Acharyas .

MARMA ODF HEAD :-

1)VIDHUR MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated below and behind the ear(external auricle). The following important anatomical structures are present in the posterior auricular region

a)Mastoid process .

b)Facial nerve.

c)Styloid artery  branch of posterior auricular artery.

Deeper structure which are present in this area

1)Tympanic membrane.

2)Structure in the Middle Ear .

3)Branches of the vestibule-cochlear nerve Cranial nerve

61

2)PHANA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANTOMY
The filament of the olfactory nerve going up through the cribriform plate of ethmoid bone to enter the olfactory bulb resemble like the phana(hood)of the snake . 1)Filaments of olfactory .

2)Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone .

3)Olfactory bulbs.

                                                            62

3)APANG MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
Apang marma are situated on the outside of the orbits below the lateral ends of the bhrupuchchha(eye brows-super ciliary arches),just lateral to the orbital cavity and close to the zygomatic process. This marma is described as sira marma by Sushruta.This is not acceptable because five cranial nerves lie underneath this marma is abundance .
63.jpg

4)AVARTA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
This marma is situated above and in the middle of the bhru(eyebrows) or suoper ciliary  arches. Sushruta says that avarta marma is a sandhi marma.This marma cab be accepted because of the fact that the fronto-zygomatico-sphenoidal suture which lies at the depression situated above the lateral end of the superior arch of the orbit.
                                         64

5)SHANKHA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
They are situated in between ear,and forehead and just above the termination of super ciliary arch/eyebrow. 1)Temporal muscle.

2)Branches of superficial temporal artery .

3)Auriculotemporal nerve(shankhasthi).

4)Middle meningeal artery(behind the temporal bone).

6)UTKSHEPA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated above the Sankha marma (In between the tragus of the ear & lateral corner of the eye) and near the hairy margin of the scalp(parietal region of the scalp). 1)Temporal fascia & muscle .

2)Parietal branch of the superficial temporal artery.

3)Zygomatic temporal nerve.

4)Meninges.

5)Anterir branch of middle meningeal artery .

6)Temporal lobe of the brain.

7)Diploic veins.

7)STHAPANI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is present in between the Bhrus (eyebrows  or superciliary arches and underneath the bony vault). 1)Anterior facial vein.

2)Superior sagittal sinus .

3)Supra orbital nerve .

4)Frontal bone.

5)Corpus callosum.

8)SRINGATAKA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
It is situated at the junction of confluences of siras providing nutrition to ghrana

(nose),shrotas(ears),askhi(eyes) and jhiva

(tounge).

1)Cavernous sinus.

2)Inter cavernous sinus .

9)ADHIPATI MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
According to Sushruta,it is situated inside the cranium superiorly at the confluence of sir(veins).This point lies just under the romavarrt(ringlet of the hair). 1)Posterior fontenelle .

2)Confluence of sinuses within cranium(torcular herophili, or torcula).

3)Obelion point.

 

10)SIMANTA MARMA

ANATOMICAL SITE REGIONAL ANATOMY
Simanta means the sumit, and are  five sutural joints in the vault of skull . 1)Sutures .

2)Sinuses.

All modern anatomists are of view that simanta marma is the area corresponding to five sutures of the cranium.

Mahamarma :-

These are 7 in number :-

  1. Murdha (Head)
  2. Jihwa Bandhan ( Muscles of Tongue)
  3. Kanth( Neck)
  4. Hridaya (Heart)
  5. Nabhi (Umbilicus)
  6. Basti (Urinary Bladder)
  7. Guda ( Anal region)

 

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