LAGHU PANCHMOOLA

             Laghu Pancamoola is part of Pancapancamool.It is an integral part of the Dasamoola formulation .It is mainly used to treat disease related to muscles,bones ,joints,nerves and kindays.Laghu pancamoola contains the roots of five herbs.

1.Brihati (Solanum indicum  Linn.)

2.Kantakari(Solanum surattense Burm. F.)

3.Saliparni( Desmodium gangeticum De. Hedysarum gangeticum Linn.)

4.Prsniparni(Urauia picta Desv.)

5.Goksura(Tributes terrestris Linn.)

          Acharaya Caraka doesn’t given the name of Laghu pancamoola.In the place of Laghu pancamoola he give the Vidarigandhadi pancamoola  in his Pancapancamoola group (C.chi). Caraka also give this drugs in Shothahara mahakashaya 1(C.Su 4/38). In the same chapter,under Angamardaprashamana Mahakashaya the first four drugs,i.e., Vidarigandha, Prishniparni ,Brihati and Kantakari are present whereas fifth drugs is Eranda1(C.Su 4/44). But Acharaya Sushruta and Vagbhata give name Laghupancamula in Pancapancamula gana.Acharya Sushruta also give the synonyms of Laghupancamula like Kaniyapancamula or Hrasvapancamula.In Kaniya/Hrasva pancamula the drugs are Trikantaka,Brihatidvaya(Brihati,Kantakari) and Prithakaparnyo( Saliparni ,Prsniparni)3 ( Su. Su  chp 38/66)

Property of laghupancamula10 

Rasa :        Tikta, Kasaya and Madhur  

Guna :        Laghu                       

Virya :       Anusna

Vipaka:      Madhur

Dosa karma:   Vatapittahara.

Action :       Brmhana, Balya, Grahi.

Indication :  Atisara, Jwara, Swasa, Asmari

Pharmacological actions10  :

  1. Analgesic
  2. Anti-arthritic
  3. Anti-inflammatory
  4. Antioxidant
  5. Anti-paralytic
  6. Antipasmodic
  7. Digestive
  8. Neuroprotective
  9. Uterine tonic
  10. Lithontriptic-dissolving stone in the kidneys or bladder

Therapeutic indication10 :

Laghupancamoola indicated in following health condition:

  1. Vata rakta (Gout)
  2. Kati graha
  3. Sandhigata vata (Osteoarthritis)
  4. Ama vata (Rheumatiod arthriti)
  5. Grdhrasi (Sciatica)
  6. Ardita (Facial paralysis)
  7. Paksaghat (Hemiplegia)
  8. Angamarda(Bodyache)
  9. Asmari (Kidney stone)
  10. Jwara (Fever)
  11. Kasa (Cough)

Materials and method10 :-

Aim and Objective :-  To study about details  of two types of Laghupancamoola  and their description.

     A chronological review of all available Ayurvedic classics have been carried out , i.e., Caraka samhuta, Sushruta samhita, Kashyapa samhita ,Astanga sangraha, Astanga Hridaya, Bhavaprakasha nighantu andall relevant information regarding Laghupancamoola was gathered. Simultaneous views of commentators like Chakrapanidatta , Dalhana, Hemadri were also considered to make the picture more clear regarding two types of Laghupancamoola. The information was critically reviewed and the rationale behind the variation in the content of Laghupancamoola was derived.

              Classical texts of Ayurveda  differs regarding components of this Mishraka varga. Four out of five  drugs of Laghupancamoola are similar in all the ayurvedic texts but either Goksura or Eranda is considered as the fifth drug. AcharayaKashyapa (Kashyapa samhita,khil sthana, Antavartani Chikitsa Adhyaya,10/83)6 Dalhana and Ravigupta(Siddhasara Dravyaguna Adhyaya, 2/29) were in view of Eranda as a fifth drug of Laghupancamula ; where as Acharya Caraka ,Sushruta,Vagbhata are in favour of Goksura.

           While reviewing the views of the commentators, it is observed that Chakrapanidatta, in his Bhanumaticommentary of Sushruta Samhita, accepted Eranda in place of Gokshura in Laghupanchamulaand stated that Charaka accepts Gokshura.Yadavaji Trikramji Acharya, in the edition of Sushruta Samhita with Dalhana commentary, has also reported that Eranda was present in places of Gokshurain one manuscript that was written in palm leaves.

         In Nighantus, i.e., Ashtanga, Dhanvantari, Bhavaprakasha, Raja ,Shaligrama, and Priya Nighantu,the five drugs of Laghupanchamulamentioned are Shalaparni, Prishniparni, Brihati, Kantakari, and Gokshura, except in Saushruta Nighantu where Erandais included as one of the constituents of Vidarigandhadi panchamula.

1)Brhati7&8 :-

Botanical name:- Solanum indicum. Linn.(Fig :-1)

Family:-Solanace

Gana:-Caraka mention in Kanthya, Hikkanigrahana, Sothahara Mahakasaya

    Sushruta mention in Brhatyadi, Laghupancamoola

Synonyms:-

  1. Vartaki
  2. Kuli
  3. Simhi
  4. Duhpradharsini
  5. Bahuputrika  

Habitat:-Brihati found in all over india, mostly in the warmer parts of india.

Habit (Morphology):- It is an erect very prickly under shrub 1 to 6 foot high, stems stout often tinged with purple.The roots are well developed, long, ribbed, woody, cylindrical 1-2.5cm in diameter.

Useful part:- Root, leaves.

Chemical constituent :-  Sterodial alkaloid, steroids.

Rasa pancake:- (Table )

Dosa karma– Kaphavata samak

Karma (Pharmacological action) :- Samgrahi, Hrdya, Pacaka, Kusthaghna, Jwaraghna, Swasaghna, Sulaghna, Kasaghna.

Therapeutic indication:- Swasa, Hrdroga, Sula, Jwara, Chardi, Kustha, Kandu, Krmi.

Therapeutic administration (Amayikprayoga):-

  1. In case of Twak roga, Lepa of leaves are applied
  2. To stop Vamans, the Patra swarasais given with Adraka
  3. Mula is useful in Kapha roga , Udarasula.

Dose:- Mula kwatha:-   50-100 ml       Mula curna:-   1-3 gms

Formulation  :-   Brhatyadi kwath , Dasamularista , Dasamula ghrta.

2) Kantakari7&8 :-

 Botanical name :- Solanum surattense Burm.f.(Fig :-2)

Family:- Solanaceae

Gana:- Caraka mention in Kasahara, Kanthya, Sothahara, Sitaprasamana mahakasaya

           Sushruta mention in Brhatyadi , Varunadi and Laghupancamoola.

Synonyms :-   1) Duhsparsa

                       2)Ksudra

                       3)Nidigdhika

                      4)Vyaghri

Habitat:- It is found throughout india mainly waste land

Habit :- A very prickly bright-green, perinial herb. Stem flexuous, leaves 2-4 inch long ovate or elliptic sinuate or sub pinnatified rounded and unequal sided at the base. Flowers few in extra axillary, short peduneted cymes or solitary, pedicals curved, seeds glabrous.

Useful part:- Pancanga.

Chemical constituent :- Glucoalkaloids and sterols.

Rasa pancake:( Table)

Dosa karma :- Kaphavatasamak

Karma(Pharmacological action) :- Sara , Dipaniya, Pacaniya, Kasaghna, Swasaghna, Jwaraghna, Krimghna, Hrdrogahara, Raktasodhak.

Therapeutic indication:- Kasa, swasa, sotha, hikka, mutrakrcchra, asmari, pratisyaya.

Therapeutic administration (Amayikaprayoga):-

  1. In Jwara, Kwatha of Kantakari and Guduci are given.
  2. In Tamaka swasa and Udvestna associated with Kasa mula kwatha is given with Saindava lavana and hingu.

Dose :-

    Mula kwatha:- 50-100 ml               Curna:– 1-2gm

Formulation :- Kantakaryaveleha, Vyaghri taila, Kantakari ghrta.

3) Saliparni7&8 :-  

Botanical name :- Desomodium gangaticum DC  ( Fig:3)

Family :- Fabaceae

Gana :-   Caraka mention in Balya, Snehopaga mahakasaya.

               Sushruta mention in Vidarigandhadi and Laghupancamoola gana

Synonyms :- 

  1. Amsumati
  2. Guha
  3. Triparni
  4. Sthira
  5. Dirgha

Habitat :- It is found in outer Himsalayas upto 5000 ft and throughout India.

Habit :-  A slender suberect under shrub 2 ½  ft high. Stems slightly angular Leaves 1-foliolate petiole ½ -1 inch stipulus ¼ inch linear subperiostant. Tap root , poorly developed, but lateral roots 15-30 cm long and 0.1-0.8 cm thick uniformly cylindrical with a number of branches.

Useful part :- Mula, Pancanga.

Chemical constituent :- Alkaloids.

Rasa pancake :- (Table)

Dosa karma :- Tridosasaamaka

Karma (Pharmcological action) :- Dipana, Snehan, Anulomana Stambana, Krimghna, Hrdya, Sothahara.

Therapeutic indication :- Sotha, Avsas, Kasa-Swasa, Jwara, Atisara, Chardi, Krmi.

Therapeutic administration (Amayikaprayoga):-     

  1. In case Hrdroga, root is boiled with milk and given.
  2. In case netraroga, roots of Saliparni combined with rock salt and Marica

Dose :- 5-10 gm of the drug in powder form.

            Decoction 50-100 ml

Formulation :- Dasamularista, Dhanwantara taila, Narayana taila, Mahanarayana taila.

4) Prsniparni7&8 :-

Botanical name :-  Uraria picta Desv. (Fig :-4)

Family :- Fabeceae

Gana :- Caraka mention in Sandhaniya, Sothahara mahakasaya.

            Sushruta mention in Vidarigandhadi , Haridradi and Laghupacamoola.

Synonyms :-

  1. Krostuvinna
  2. Citraparni
  3. Simhapucchi
  4. Kalasi

Habitat :- It is found in all over india.

Habit :- A sparingly branched perineal 0.9-1.8 m high.Stem stout reaching 1.2cm at the base. Leaves inparipinnate 20-30cm long. Roots are cylindrical upto 1.5cm thick branching from top to unbranched root let which are 2 to 4mm thicjk.

Chemical constituent :- Alkaloids, reducing sugar and sterols.

Rasa pancaka :- (Table)

 Dosa karma :- Tridosasamaka

Karma(Pharmacological action) :- Dipaniya Vrsya, Vatahara, Sangrahi, Sothahara, Jwaraghna, Hrdya.

Therapeutic indication :-Jwara, Swasa, Raktatisara,Trsna, Chardi, Daha, Ashtibhnga.

Therapeutic admistration ( Amyikaprayoga) :-

  1. A kwatha prepared out of bala and prsniparni is useful in raktaarsas and madatya.
  2. The pancanga sarasa is useful in sarpavish
  3. In  Vatarakta, roots of Prsniparni is boiled with Ajaksira and sugar is added and given.

Dose :-     Kwatha 15-100ml

Formulation :- Dasamularista, Dasamula kwath curna.

5 ) Goksura7&8:-

Botanical name :- Tribulus terrestris  Linn (Fig :-5).

Family :- Zygophyllaceae.

Gana :- Caraka mention in Mutravirecaniya, Sothahara, Krimghna, and Anuvasanopaga            Mahakasaya.

            Sushruta mention in Vidarigandhadi, Viratarvadi and Laghupancamoola.

Synonyms :-

  1. Iksugandhika
  2. Trikantaka
  3. Gokantaka
  4. Palankasa

Habitat :- Distributed throughout india upto 11000ft. it is also found in the warmer region of the world.

Habit :- it is a prostrate annule or biennial, clothed with silky hairs. Flowers 1/3-3/4 inch across, on peduncle shorter than the leaves.The fruits are indehiscent cocci with 2 long and 2 short spines, glabrous or hairy . Root are slender, tortuous, gradually tapering root 12 to20cm long. External surface yellowish brown in colour slightly wrinkled longituidinally with prominent root scars.

Useful part :- Mula and Phala.

Chemical constituent :- Alkaloids and saponin, nitrates and volatile oils.

Rasa pancake :- (Table)

Dosa karma :- Vatapittasamaka

Karma (Pharmacological action) :- Basti sodhaka, Angidipaka, Vrsya, Sothaghna, Vatasamaka, Mutrala, Swasa,  Kasahara.

Therapeutic indication :- Mutrakrccha, Asmari, Prameha, Hrdroga, Arsas, Swas-Kasa, Klaibya.

Therapeutic admistration ( Amayikaprayoga) :-

  1. The pancanga of Goksura swarasa is boiled with Ghrta and administered with milk in cas of Asmari.
  2. In Mutrakrccha , a kwatha prepared with Pancanga of Goksura given with sugar candy and Madhu is beneficial

Dose :- Curna – 3-6gm,  Kwatha- 50-100ml

Formulation :- Goksuradicurna, Goksuradiguggulu, Dasamularista, Amrtarista, Goksuradyavaleha.

6)Eranda7&8 :-

Botanical name :- Ricinus communis Linn (Fig :- 6).

Family :- Euphorbiaceae

Gana :- Caraka mention in Bhedaniya, Angamardaprasamana, Swedopaga mahakasaya.

             Sushruta mention in Vidarigandhadi, Adhobhagahara , Vatasamsamana.

Synonyms :-

  1. Gandharvahasta
  2. Urubuka
  3. Pancangula
  4. Amanda
  5. Vardhamana

Varieties :- Bhava prakasa nighantu and Raja nighantu described two varieties of Eranda

  1. Sweta( white)
  2. Rakta( red)

Habitat:-Cultivated throughout India and commonly found in the wild.

Habits:- An evergreen, glabrous shrub, 2-4.5 m high. Leaves- palmately 7-many-lobed, loboes oblong to linear, acute or acuminate. Flowers- in large terminal subpanicled racemes; in a dense globose head of branched filaments and anthers; yellowish. Fruits- Capsules, globosely oblong, smooth or echinate. Seeds- oblong, smooth, mottled.

Useful part:- Root, leaf, seed, oil.

Chemical constituent:- Ricinine, 1-methyl-3-cyano-4methoxy-2pyridone etc.

Rasa pancaka:- (Table)

Dosa  karma:- Kapha-vatahara

Karma(Pharmacological action):- Sulaghna, Sothaghna, Katisulaghna, Bastirogahara, Sirahsulaghna, Udararoghara, Jvaraghna, Svasaghna, Kasaghna, Kusthaghna.

Therapeutic indication:- Vata vyadhi, Pliharoga, Udavarta, Vastisula, Gulma, Antravrddhi, Katisula, Prameha, Vatarakta etc.

Therapeutic administration (Amayikaprayoga):-

  1. SlipadaEranda taila mixed with cow’s urine may be taken for one month while consuming diet of rice & milk.
  2. Parsvasula- Yavaksara is added to Eranda kwatha and take.

Dose:- Root powder 3-5 g, decoction 50-100 ml; oil 5-10 ml.

Formulation:- Rasnairandadi Kasaya, Simhanada guggulu, Vatari guggulu, Hingu triguna taila, Erandadi taila.

Rasa pancaka of all the drugs of Laghu pancamoola7&8:-

Drugs Rasa Guna Veerya Vipaka   Prabhav
1.Brihati 2.Kantakari 3.Saliparni 4.Prsniparni 5.Goksura 6.Eranda   Katu,Tikta. Katu,Tikta Tikta,Madhura Madhura,Tikta Madhur Madhur,Katu,Kasay—a Laghu,Ruksha Laghu,Ruksha Guru Laghu,Snigdha Guru,Snigdha Snigdha,Tiksna   Usna Usna Usna Usna Sheeta Usna Katu Katu Madhur Madhur Madhur Madhur        –        –        –        –        –

Discussion:-

        The word Laghu pancamoola as such is not reffered to in ancient Ayurvedic Classic i.e., Charaka samhita and Sushruta samhita. However in Astanga Sangraha and Astanga Hrdaya, it is mentioned as components of many compound formulations. In Caraka samhita, Sushruta samhita and Kashyapa samhita Laghupancamoola was known by the name of Vidarigandhadi pancamoola, Kaniyapancamoola, Khuddakapanchamula respectively. All the above terms indicate the habit of plants of this group, i.e., either herb (Shalaparni, Prsniparni, Brihati, Kantakari and Goksura), or Shrub (Erand). Acharaya Kashyapa,Dalhana ,Ravi gupta give Erand as a fifth drug of Laghupancamoola; where as Acharya Caraka, Sushruta, Vagbhata are in favour of Goksura.

          Laghupancamoola have the properties of Tikta, Kasaya, Madhur Rasa, Laghu Guna, Anusna Virya  Madhur Vipaka and it is Vatapittahara. Laghu pancamoola is mainly indicated in the Vatarakta, Paksaghat, Sandhigata vata, Amavata, Asmari, Jwara etc.

Conclusion :-

        It concluded as the study of laghupancamoola is the drugs of laghu pancamoola are Brihati, Sali parni, Prsniparni, Kantakari, Goksura or Eranda. Acharya Caraka, Sushruta, Vagbhata give Goksura as the fifth drug of laghupancamoola and Acharya Kasayapa give Eranda as the fifth drug of laghupancamoola. Laghupancamoola have brmhana, balya action and it is very useful in vatarakta, amavata, asmari, jwara etc.  

Reference:-

  1. Caraka Samhita,Cakrapani Commentary Purvardha(First paper) Part I Sutra sthana edited by Dr.P.V.Tewari Published by Chaukhambha Vishvabharati, Varanasi,Sutra stana Shadavirechanashtiya Adhyaya,4/38&44.
  2. Caraka Samhita,Dridhabala commentary, Vol IV edited by Dr. Ram Karan Sharma and Vaidya Bhagwan Dash. Published by Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series office, Varanasi, Cikitsa Sthansa, Abhaya AmalakiRasayana Adhyaya, Pratham pada, 1/42.
  3. Sushruta Samhita,Dalhana comentary Vol I Translated & edited by Prof.K.R.Srikantha Murthey, Publishd by Chaukhambha Orientalia,Varanasi,Sutra Sthana, Dravyasangrhaniya Adhyaya  38/66
  4. Ashtanga Sangraha, Vagbhata, Sutra sthana, edited by Gupta KA Published by Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan,Varansi,Sutra sthana ,Vividha Oshadha Vijyaniya Adhyaya 12/34.
  5. Astanga Hrdaya,Vagbhata,Sutra Sthana, edited by Dr.R.Vidyanath,Published by Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan,Varanasi,Sutra sthana,Annasvarupa Vijyaniya Adhyaya 6/168-169.
  6. Kashyapa Samhita,Khil Sthana,vridha Jeevaka, edited by PV Tewari,Published by Chokhambha vishva Bharati,Varanasi.Khali Sthana, Antavartani Chikitsa Adhyaya, 10/83
  7. Dravyaguna vijnana Vol II by Dr.J.L.N. Sastry Foreword by Prof.K.C.Chuneka,Published by Chaukhambha Visvabharati,Varanasi.
  8. Dravyaguna Vijnana by Prof.D.Shanth Kumar Lucas ,Published by Chaukhambha Visvabharati,Varanasi
  9.  A critical review on two types of Laghupancamoola, et.ad 2012  Shivani Ghildiyal & Vinod kumar Joshi ,An International Ouarterly Journal Of Research in Ayurveda.
  10. www.ayurtimes.com//https://www.ayurtimes.com>laghupancamoola//Last access on 17/8/19
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